Public Key Cryptography


A public and private key asymmetry


In Internet communications, there is a need to manage identity and security for every user. It is called Public Key Infrastructure, or PKI. And what enables PKI to function is its core technology known as Public Key Cryptography, or PKC. It is an asymmetric cryptography framework that utilizes private and public key pairs as a solution to modern computer security challenges in the ever-expanding cryptocurrency ecosystem. Also known as asymmetric cryptography, the two related keys are used in combination to encrypt or decrypt messages. PKC is a mechanism that runs on cryptographic algorithms in protecting sensitive personal data and identities from cyberattacks, unauthorized use, malicious access, and other online crimes.



The Workings of a PKC


A public key consists of a set of numbers at random that represents the encryption to a message which can only be deciphered by the recipient by the use of the private key pair, equally made up of a random set of numbers. The private key must be secured at all times and be known only to the intended recipient. The key pair must be mathematically related so that it can decrypt whatever is encrypted by its counterpart. Therefore, private keys must be generated by using the same algorithms in creating public keys to create strong key pairs that are mathematically bonded.


In a PKC mode, every asymmetric pairing are unique. The sender uses the public key to encrypt information, while the private key is used to decrypt the information by the recipient. As the two keys are different, it makes it possible for the public key to navigate the Internet without compromising the encrypted message as it can only be opened by the one who possesses the corresponding private key. Asymmetric encryption algorithms generate mathematically linked key pairs, the reason why their key lengths are longer than their symmetric counterparts – from 1,024 bits to 2,048 bits. This alone makes the computation of a private key difficult from its public key pair.


The commonest among PKC schemes is the RSA. In an RSA mode (meaning Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, who introduced the RSA scheme),  it requires generating two keys using a formula of multiplying two large numbers, usually prime numbers. The modulus then produces two keys – a publicly shared one and the other secretly kept.



What PKC Serves Beneficial


With public key cryptography, identity and data security is heightened by an owner’s secret possession of the private key. While symmetric key algorithms cannot be easily scaled due to the near impossible coordination of so many connections needed to share in private all the necessary combinations of a private key, PKC design, in contrast, is scalable to the point that it can secure the billions of daily exchanging messages navigating the Internet. This is made possible through the wide and open distribution of public keys which can only be opened by intended recipients through the private keys they hold as required in decrypting the message.



Difference Between the Two


An encryption key in public-key cryptography, which can either be the public or the private key, is utilized to encrypt a plainly written text message and then convert it into a kind of an encoded text called ciphertext. Then the intended recipient uses the other key as a decryption key to open the ciphertext. So, it is either the one is encrypting while the other one is decrypting.



Encrypting Tool


PKC is the solution to a symmetric algorithm headache of sending and using the same key for encryption and decryption. It is a high risk transmitting the key over an unsecured connection prone to malicious interceptions. PKC’s two-key scheme ensures a greater level of security compared to its symmetric counterparts.



Digital Signatures


Authenticating data through the use of digital signatures is another of PKC’s applications. This digital signature is the hash created by using the data in the message that can be scrutinized by the intended recipient using the public key of the sender. This is a way of authenticating the message’s origin to make sure it is untampered. The hash may be encrypted as part of the message, too, though this is not necessarily applied in all digital signature schemes.





Public key encryption is a method of verifying the message’s integrity and increasing computer security that comes with its own set of limitations. PKC can be slow when huge amounts of data are transmitted due to the complexity of mathematical operations involved in encrypting and decrypting. Another is that PKC is only successful as long as private keys are kept secret. Otherwise, sensitive data can be compromised if ever private keys are laid bare. Additionally, encrypted data is considered lost forever and impossible to recover once the private keys to decrypt them are forgotten or misplaced.





PKC is widely applied in many modern computer systems that require the security of sensitive data. PKC is used in emails to maintain the confidentiality of messages transmitted. For website security, PKC is employed to protect the security sockets layer (SSL) protocol that itself secures the connections of websites. PKC is in the exploration stage by government authorities for a secure electronic voting system to allow voters to vote straight from their own computers during elections.



Blockchain and Cryptocurrency


PKC occupies as an important component in blockchains and cryptocurrencies. Every time a digital wallet is set up, a key pair consisting of a public key and a private key is generated. The public key contains the wallet address, which can be shared with others securely. Its private key pair is for the creation of digital signatures and transaction verification, and therefore, should be confidentially kept by the wallet owner. A transaction can be added to the blockchain’s ledger after its verification by hash confirmation held within the digital signature. After this confirmation can the private key holder is enabled to access the funds.


There is a difference, though in the way that asymmetric cryptography is utilized in crypto applications compared to a computer’s security. The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, or ECDSA, is used by Bitcoin and Ethereum to verify transactions by creating digital signatures or hashes even without encryption techniques.





Public key cryptography remains to be a widely used security mechanism to secure computer systems currently in operation. PKC serves as a solution to inherent problems associated with symmetric cryptography. Given its limitations, new applications are emerging and, thus, explored to keep up with the security demands of cryptocurrencies and blockchains in general.



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